Analogue electronics

Analogue electronic systems process continuous signals. Information depicted by an analogue signal is represented by the value of a voltage or current signal. Analogue signals are fully variable, and any value can occur within a stipulated range.

Assembler programming

This kind of programming is used as a rule for software on the microprocessor level. This permits programming of particularly fast software routines.

Digital electronics

Digital electronics or digital technology deals with the processing of discrete signals (expressed as a number or logical value). The discrete aspect always refers to the value range and often also to the behaviour in time. In practice only bivalent systems are used, i.e. voltages or currents are to assume only two values, depending on the transitory processes (high or low, on or off, 1 or 0).


DMS refers to the resistance strain gauge. This is used to measure the expansion of bodies.


Digital signal processing is a sub-area of communications engineering and deals with processing analogue signals using digital systems.

Real time systems

Real time systems supply the result within a previously defined time interval, before reaching a certain time barrier. A typical application is engine control systems in cars.


Electromagnetic compatibility refers both to the freedom from interference and the interference resistance of electrical or electronic modules in interaction with their surroundings. The EMC test is a basic test for all products in areas containing electrical and electronic modules.


Environmental stress screening describes necessary qualification tests for products and systems in particularly adverse surroundings. Focal aspects include temperature cycle tests, vibration tests and temperature endurance tests at maximum permissible operating temperature.

Filter, broadband

An analogue filter which lets signals pass in a relatively broad spectrum. Signals above and below this bandwidth are suppressed.

Filter, narrowband

An analogue filter which lets signals pass in a relatively narrow spectrum. Signals above and below this bandwidth are suppressed.

High voltage test

The high voltage test can be carried out on devices in protection class I and II. It checks whether the insulation has a voltage resistance specified according to the standards, ascertaining whether the insulation of the live wires and the spacing to the housing are in order.

Interfaces e.g. RS232/RS485/CAN

An interface is part of a system that permits communication with other systems.

KUFOS - DMS force sensor (also multiaxial)

A force sensor measures a force acting on a sensor. Force sensors usually measure both pressure and tension forces. KUFOS is a measurement system developed by Kunow electronic which can be used for different measurement applications.

KUPOS - Distance measurement sensors (patented for longitudinal wave measurement)

KUPOS is a measurement system developed by Kunow electronic for measuring spacing and distances in systems. KUPOS has been conceived on the basis of longitudinal wave measurement and can be used in surroundings with extreme pressures and ambient conditions (for example in hydraulic systems).

Microcontroller (particularly M16C, PIC, 8051)

A microprocessor used especially for control and regulation tasks. The processor has analogue and digital ports warranting connection with other systems.

Partial discharge

Partial discharge (also pre-discharge) is a phrase used in high voltage technology to describe primarily the form and properties of insulating materials. Partial discharges occur in high voltage insulations or along air gaps with highly inhomogeneous field progressions. It is possible for the values to exceed the dielectric strength levels typical to the type of material. In this state of incomplete dielectric breakdown, the insulation between the electrodes is only partly bridged by discharges. Such partial discharges occur above all when the insulation is subject to AC voltage loads.